Are there any rules for robots or automata in D&D 3.5, whether from first- or third-party publishers?
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Since the Warforged were brought up, I'll toss in the other side of the coin: D20 Mecha. It was a supplement for the d20 rules of Big Eyes Small Mouth but adaptable to any of the d20 games to make any vehicle from a frigate to a space station. They even have a sample creation that is almost a direct rip off of Escaflowne. Maybe looking into that will help you out.
Add'l/Edit 1: I've often d20 Mecha as my golem creation reference since you don't have to make manned "vehicles".
Eberron has warforged, a race of sentient golems, as playable characters. I don't know where they are detalied but I know a race called mechanatrix exists and they are a sort of cyborg half human half mechanical being crossbreed.
AFAIK there's no rule pertaining time travel in D&D. The DM has the final call in how this should work.
One of the published adventures on the WotC website featured a secret society of mages sending a golem back in time to gather informations in the Forgotten Realms universe. To avoid any kind of temporal paradox only items and golems were allowed time travel.
As for other RPG systems I don't know of any that specifically address the time travel problem.