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You can use spellcraft to identify a spell as it is being cast. But does this check let you know the target of the spell? As an example of when this could matter quite a lot, Dominate allows you to control someone telepathically. You'll really want to know who the evil wizard just tried to dominate!

The rules (3.5/PF) do mention that

You make all pertinent decisions about a spell (range, target, area, effect, version, and so forth) when the spell comes into effect,

so clearly for spells with a longer casting time, you can't know the target until the very end.

I believe the RAW are simply silent on this issue (certainly the spellcraft skill itself provides only minimal guidance) but I'm wondering if there's something I've missed. Also, I chose target for concreteness, but the situation in general applies to each of the "decisions" mentioned above.

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No. Spellcraft only allows you to identify the spell, so you just learn its name. No other attributes of the spell (target, etc) are given to you. Expectation otherwise is not supported by the text or commonly used in play in my experience.

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This is the answer I usually use. I justify it by saying that spells must be hideously complicated and not standardised, or any wizard who could cast magic missile would recognise the spell being cast easily. The spellcraft check is only barely good enough to work out what such spells are trying to do - fine details such as target or variations of effect are too subtle to work out. –  GMJoe Sep 7 '12 at 5:14
Do you mean what the spell does? I think the OP is asking can you figure out which exact person, for example, is being targeted, not that the spell is Target: 1 Person. Most PCs just look it up in the book once they get the name. If we wanted a more in-game solution and they didn't have that spell themselves I'd probably ask for a spellcraft or knowledge:arcana check to figure out what the stock spell does. "Magic missile fires one missile for every two levels blah blah..." –  mxyzplk Sep 7 '12 at 15:20
I always thought it was pretty clear that it effectively (in-game) gives the spell description rather than name. Wizards can research custom spells no one has ever heard of before, but by the RAW you can still use a spellcraft check to identify that spell. This is exactly why I find the phrasing 'identify' to be more ambiguous than just giving you the name of the spell. –  starwed Sep 8 '12 at 0:44
@mxyzplk Wow, I chose my words poorly. To clarify, I play it that the spellcraft check lets you know what the spell is designed to do, not what it's being used for. Just like what starwed suggests, in fact. –  GMJoe Sep 10 '12 at 7:20
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