Rank 1 techniques generally add rolled dice in certain circumstances (The Way of the Clan techniques in particular) and have a defensive bonus.
Rank 3 techniques usually convert your attack from a Complex action to a Simple, allowing you to make two attacks a round.
Some combinations of these rank 1 techniques are more powerful than 2 or 3 ranks in one school. Rank 1 Akodo Bushi/Rank 1 Mirumoto Bushi will allow you to ignore armor (or get a free raise) and get a bonus rolled dice on some attacks from the Lion; the Dragon training allows dual wielding without penalty (which includes an armor increase), adds a small boost to armor defenses and nudges the TN of spells affecting you up or down by 5.
In comparison, a Rank 2 Mirumoto gets a bonus to Iaijutsu roll totals equal to his Kenjutsu skills and a Rank 2 Akodo gets to add his Honor Rank to one roll total per turn.
There are two reasons for that cost and caveat. One is that multiple school training is rare in the setting. The high cost helps point out that convincing people that your oath to your school is less important than you getting training from some other school - and that the other school should train someone whose clanmates killed the sensei's uncle's wife's cousin.
The other reason is that there are often unintended consequences when combining things that are not exactly intended to be combined. Adding the caveat encourages GMs to double check a particular combination in case the developers have missed something.