Mind Flayers seem to look a whole lot like Cthulhu. Is there any relationship/inspiration between the two?
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Indirectly, yes. Gary Gygax tells us that "the mind flayer I made up out of whole cloth using my imagination, but inspired by the cover of Brian Lumley's novel in paperback edition, The Burrowers Beneath." Said novel was firmly rooted in the Cthulhu mythos; in fact, Lovecraft's character Robert Harrison Blake wrote a short story titled "The Burrower Beneath." We may suspect that title was an influence on Brian Lumley's choice of titles.
The cover in question, for reference:
I think they were definitely inspired by Cthulhu, and there's no secret that the original D&D designers and fans were very familiar with the works of HP Lovecraft. It's probably not just illithids, either. We could look closely and see a lot Mythos-inspired monsters in the earliest monster manuals as well as the newest ones.
The Cthulhu Mythos was featured in the original print-runs of Deities and Demigods.