I'm a little bit confused about the First Pass (described on pp. 15–16 of the rules). Is there a Lens and a Focus as usual, or does this section proceed without a Focus? If there's no Focus, how do you know when the First Pass ends and the rest of the game begins?
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No. The rules don't suggest that you do, and it would be contrary to the purpose of the first pass: to flesh out the history a little bit before you begin normal play. If you had a Focus, then the starting history would be far too narrowly focused to be a useful start.
You know when the first pass ends because everyone has made one card and placed it (p. 15, emphasis mine):
Note also that there is no turn order during the first pass – you just make a bit of history each and place them as players come up with them. The first pass should really be quite quick. When you're done the first pass, there should be a number of cards equal to the number of players plus two for the bookend Periods.