Survival covers navigating and determining heading. In most cases, celestial navigating would be used for such tasks (though Survival does not actually assume or require that this be your method).
Knowledge of the movements of the heavens would probably be covered by Knowledge (geography) or Knowledge (the planes), depending on the cosmology of your setting. Note that Knowledge (geography) gives a synergy bonus to Survival checks made to avoid getting lost.
Profession (astrologer) is required by at least one prestige class (Sublime Chord from Complete Arcane), though no specific details for using it do any of the things you’re asking about exists.
The creation of new skills in supplements is generally avoided, and at least in my opinion, is a mistake where it happens. The new skills cannot (easily) be distributed appropriately as class skills, and furthermore 3.5 already has far too many skills. I feel strongly that including these kinds of skills as part of existing skills is more appropriate than creating a new skill. This includes a new Knowledge subskill: Knowledge (astronomy) is too specific, and introduces the headache of determining which classes do and do not receive it as a class skill.