Traveller: The New Era did go into this sort of detail but it was a bit dry and not much fun.
When I ran Rogue Trader I cheated and copied a bunch of planetary data from the old Amiga and PC game Elite II: Frontier because that had the detail I needed on star types, planet types and numbers, and so on. While I didn't make use of stuff like surface temperature and length of seasons, that data was there if I needed it.
I'm not familiar with any other open world space games but I imagine most of them have something similar; Frontier's was notable because it had the appearance of being plausible and realistic.
Assuming you don't have access to any of the games in the Elite series there is a recreation of the starmaps from the game here.