In the Shadowrun 5e core book, all knowledge skill examples are shown with specializations, do you need to designate a specialization whenever you take a knowledge skill? If not, does designating a specialization for a knowledge skill cost karma (or points during character creation)?
As far as I see, not all knowledge skill examples are taken with specializations. For example, if you look on p91 on James' skills choice, he took:
Of these, only Matrix Security Measures has a specialty ("IC"). Remember that (Street) and (Interests) are just categories of Knowledge Skills.
Furthermore, all the ratings in that example add to 15, while the characters has 16 free points. This seems to indicates that the one specialty was bought with the 16th free point.