Unknown Armies may fit your requirements. The publisher's webpage for the game starts with this:
Unknown Armies is the roleplaying game of transcendental horror and furious action: Pulp Fiction meets Hellraiser.
Characters in UA have experienced a "triggering event" -- something... strange that they witnessed or had happen to them. Ruth Pechvogel went cave diving and found an upside-down Egyptian church, which she never was able to find again. Agnes Veuve saw "Mama Flo" protect a battered woman from her abusive husband; Flo beat the husband to death with a frying pan... after the husband blew Flo's brains out with a gun. Et cetera.
In addition to mundane humans, characters can be Avatars or Adepts. Avatars channel an archetype, such as "the mystic hermaphrodite," "the gambler," "the merchant," and so on. Adepts perform magick, and are completely obsessed with whatever their particular school covers. The schools of Adept magick vary wildly, from Entropomancy (chaos/luck) to Cliomancy (history) to Dipsomancy ("booze hounds") to Pornomancy (exactly what it says on the tin).
When it comes to emotions and stress, UA incorporates five different mental stresses:
- The Unnatural
The mental stress system is basically a sanity system (one of the UA designers also worked on Call of Cthulhu), but the range of possible stresses is very expansive.
Stressful events can originate from almost any source, from NPCs to other PCs to yourself to even the environment. Events can have ratings of 1-10, increasing with severity. Characters can have up to 10 "hardened" notches in each stress, and up to 5 "failed" notches. When subjected to a stress with a rating higher than the number of hardened notches the character has in that stress, they roll their Mind attribute. Success adds a hardened notch, failure adds a failed notch. If you fail, you must also choose an adrenal response (fight, flight, or freeze) and stick to that response until the source of the stress is gone.
If you have 5 failed notches, you automatically fail any Mind rolls for that stress (although if you have enough hardened notches, you're still hardened against the lower-rank stresses). The first time you reach 5 failed notches in any given stress, you gain a permanent mental aberration (eg: phobia, flashbacks). If you have 10 hardened notches in each of two stresses, or a total of 35 hardened notches between all five stresses, you become a sociopath. (Sociopaths cannot use their Passions, and Avatar characters suffering from sociopathy cannot use their Avatar skills.) Psychotherapy can reduce failed notches or hardened notches depending on your own Mind roll and the psychologist's skill roll (best-case is 3 notches for one session of therapy, but characters with 5 failed notches must spend at least 3 months in a mental institution first).
Examples of stressful events include (but are very much not limited to):
- Getting attacked with a weapon (Violence 1)
- Performing torture (Violence 6)
- Seeing something which cannot logically exist (The Unnatural 2)
- Speaking with a dead loved one (The Unnatural 7)
- Fail at something when it is imperative that you succeed (Helplessness 3)
- Watch someone you love die (Helplessness 8)
- Get institutionalized by someone you trust (Isolation 4)
- Be treated as a stranger by your friends (Isolation 9)
- Do not act on an impulse from your Noble stimulus because it's "too dangerous" (Self 5)
- Deliberately destroy everything you've risked your life to support (Self 10)
In addition to the stress tracks, characters each have three Passions and an Obsession. The Passions are Rage, Fear, and Nobility. A character's Fear passion is linked to one of the five mental stresses (above), and you make a stress test whenever you encounter your fear. Once per passion per session, a player may activate a passion (if the situation is appropriate) to increase his or her chances on a roll (either flip the digits of the roll, or reroll). The Noble passion must be used for selfless acts, the Rage passion must be used for aggressive acts, and the Fear passion must not be used for aggressive acts.
A character's Obsession is mostly roleplay fluff, but it also defines his or her Obsession Skill. Characters have a higher chance to succeed with their Obsession skill (you can always flip the digits of the roll).