RAW: 'X-based checks' are not explicitly defined anywhere.
However, I would consider concentration checks to be based off of both of the primary casting attribute of the caster. Mostly because skills are also never explicitly defined as 'ability based' but are referenced as such.
The format for a skill check is :
1d20 + Ranks +KeyAbilityMod +other mods
A skill check is considered X-based when X is they key ability used.
Concentration follows a similar check:
1d20 + CasterLevel + CastingAbilityMod + other mods
We can create this mapping between the modifiers for skill check and concentration checks:
Ranks -> caster level
KeyAbilityMod -> CastingAbiiltyMod
other mods -> other mods
If you agree with such a mapping then that leads to considering concentration to based on your casting attribute.
note: monsters in the bestiary have abilities that explicitly state when their abilities are 'x-based'. However, I think this is because they leave out the formulas to calculate the values and certain situations (ability damage) can change them.