Most of the time, when you think of throwing a weapon like an axe or a spear, it's done with one hand. However, some weapons like the trident are versatile... is there anything that says you can or can't throw the trident two-handed for 1d8 instead of 1d6 damage? I guess for a blunt thrown weapon you could do it like the olympic hammer toss, but that doesn't apply with things like the trident.
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From a balance point of view, you will have paid the cost (of not having a shield or second weapon equipped in your off hand). So that's OK.
In terms of rationale, watch someone throwing a javelin. The off hand is used for balance and additional momentum. There is definitely more force when the off hand is free
I'd allow it.
By RAW, I'd say it is ok if the weapon is specifically thrown versatile. Without penalty.
RAI I really don't know. Balance wise, I think requiring both hands is cost sufficient for the improved damage dice which only average out to 1 damage.
A strict reading of the rules, allows you to use Versatile with Thrown at the same time, because the "use the weapon with two hands" is not well defined.
However in the example of the trident, it isn't clear to me how you would "use two hands" to throw the weapon. I.e, the question becomes, if the Character has a small object, in their hand, (say a glow stone) would they really do less damage, then if that hand was empty? If they drop that glow stone, do they deserve a d8 instead of d6 damage die?
However, there are other thrown weapons, where two hands would make sense, and you might spin around before throwing it, like an Olympic "hammer throw", and in that case if the weapon was marked as versatile, you would certainly gain the increase in damage die.
So it's going to be up to your table/GM to decide if a trident can be thrown "using two hands" or not.
Go outside, find a broom or something else with a long shaft. Try and throw it with 2 hands. It is near imposible for you to coordinate a throw with both hands and also hit something. And also most of the time one of the hands will break the speed insted of increasing it.
Is it like an axe or hammer, where you can with both hands raise it over your head, and then throw it with both hands, it is another thing. (But you did mention trident so thats what i thought for reference)
This is where you need to ask your self, does the rules count or does realism count? Almost always, if it sounds plausible, if the player can argument (he is a 1000BC ninja with roots in the special two handed trident diciplin that he have been training for his entire life - ofcause he can), or if it is possible in real life, id allow it. Else, id allow it with a penalty, penalty varys depending on dificulty.