There are already good answers about general strategies, and about dealing with the "normal" players, but specifically as to the schemes you list:
I throw one of my living spiders in that pool to check if it is poisonous!
I blow some of my the ashes around to check for air currents!
Fine. And the component pouch is pretty irrelevant here, since dust is not that hard for a party to lay its hands on anyway. Failing that they could burn a scrap of paper or fabric, or a leaf, and watch the smoke to check for air currents.
If they use spell components excessively for this stuff then you might like to tell them that they're (almost) out, which limits what spells they can cast until they restock.
I use my amber rods and this piece of fur to create a bit of static and lift up that piece of paper without touching it!
Questionable whether this would actually work, it might have to be a very light piece of paper, but other than that sure. They could otherwise lift a piece of paper without touching it using gloves, or a skewer, or something thin and flat (sword/axe/spatula). In effect they've just made their amber rod sticky.
It sounds like they're doing it for the fun of using spell components, not because the spell components are actually the best tool for the job. So, whatever, but encourage them to be creative in other ways too.
I use this living worm as a bait for my fishing rod!
Of course. It's assumed that wizards can catch worms to keep stocked, so sure, worms are plentiful. If they didn't use one from their component bag you'd just have let them find one on the ground anyway.
I burn a bit of the sulfur on my pouch to keep those bees away!
OK, but it probably doesn't burn long, or produce much of a cloud of smoke. It will choke the PCs too, and not be any more effective than burning firewood except in that it's presumably easier to set light to.
I use this vial of quicksilver to poison his food!
AFAIK mercury is a relatively slow-acting poison. I can't find an LD50 for elemental mercury with a quick search. Various compounds of it are around 10 mg/kg, so fudging for the sake of getting on with the game, a likely-lethal dose is at least 800mg, about 0.1cm3. Hardly the most subtle poison then, since it's a metallic-looking (and I presume -tasting although I'm not about to find out) liquid immiscible with water.
Access to "good" poisons is either easy in your campaign or not. If it's easy, they're using the wrong poison. If it's not, then the ready availability of mercury to the wizard suggests that it's not all that effective as a poison. However, as a slow cumulative poison administered in tiny quantities, go for it, it's probably about as good as slowly poisoning someone with arsenic.
I use this pieces of squid to create a meal for that tiger!
Not enough, and no guarantee the tiger will even consider it edible. Use your rations instead, and hope like heck the tiger prefers small amounts of dried meat to large amounts of fresh meat on the hoof (e.g. the wizard). The squid must be preserved, since fresh squid meat turns to goo very quickly at room temperature.
I use this bat guano to treat the leaves of that plant!
Um, OK. I don't know what effect bat guano has on the leaves of a plant, but I imagine nothing significant. Other fertilizer products are available :-)
For your players to have fun with this kind of creativity:
- You should not consider it a problem if they solve relatively easy problems using what they have to hand. If the party needs to go fishing then seriously, finding bait should not occupy game time, almost anything they suggest will just work.
- They need you to apply a critical eye to whether they've genuinely found a solution. Be a little creative thinking about how it might not work. If they have a captive tiger that's hungry, one source of 10-20 pounds of meat is as good as any other, they should go shopping. A small piece of dried squid won't do. If a ferocious wild animal is attacking them then it won't just stop even if they throw big lumps of fresh meat at it, never mind a ham sandwich.
- There are some untidy edges between abstract and concrete parts of the game, and the players shouldn't be exploiting that. Wizards are assumed to have spell components in order to prevent the hunt for components overwhelming the game. But although no specific limit is stated, the abstraction "wizards can lay their hands on enough sulphur to cast fireball" shouldn't be allowed to imply "the wizard has an inexhaustible supply of sulphur". Mercury might fall into this gap -- there may be a contradiction between "poisons are hard to get" and "spell components are easy to get", in which case rule that since it's easy to get it's not an effective poison within the rules of the game. Don't let the players invoke "realism" when it suits them and "abstraction" when it doesn't, because if you do the game becomes about finding mistakes in the rules. That's not fun for long.
- Doing something surprising and off-beat is fun the first time. After that it's not creative. So there's a difference between a group that uses the wizard's live spider for some clever purpose once in a campaign, and a group that keeps on getting the live spider out every darn session. If they start repeating themselves then reduce how much you give them the benefit of the doubt, to encourage them to remain creative.
They get a no several times. This is one of the reasons they take a
long time to do their stuff.
The "uncreative" players are perfectly entitled to say, both in and out of character, "you guys rummage around in that pouch if you like, we're actually just going to get on with it". Just because they want to handle the problem in the predictable way doesn't mean they should have to give the other players unlimited attempts to do something else.
So, the crafty players administer mercury. The target doesn't die. The fighters walk up to him in the street the next day and attack him. Guess we won't find out just exactly how slow-acting mercury is, will we?