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Stunning Strike reads like the following paragraph:

"Starting at 5th level, you can interfere with the flow of ki in an opponent’s body. When you hit another creature with a melee weapon attack, you can spend 1 ki point to attempt a stunning strike. The target must succeed on a Constitution saving throw or be stunned until the end of your next turn."

My question is, do Martial Arts count as Melee Weapons for the purpose of determining this effect? Or should the Monk be attacking with a weapon?

The confusion isn't cleared when reading the Martial Arts section, since it seems to separate Melee Weapons from Unarmed Strikes:

"You can roll a d4 in place o f the normal damage of your unarmed strike or monk weapon. This die changes as you gain monk levels, as shown in the Martial Arts column of the Monk table."

So, is it possible?

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up vote 8 down vote accepted

Yes. Unarmed strikes are melee weapons regardless of whether you're looking at the original PHB printing (they're listed in the table of melee weapons) or the errata (which says unarmed strikes may be used instead of a weapon to make a melee weapon attack) and therefore satisfy Stunning Strike's requirement for a melee weapon attack.

(The second quote isn't separating unarmed strikes from melee weapons, it's separating unarmed strikes from monk weapons, which are a category of manufactured weapon.)

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After the errata that ... Weapons (p. 149). Unarmed strike doesn’t belong on the Weapons table. ... can you please update your answer – SteveC Jun 12 at 13:19
    
@SteveC Done. Thanks for the reminder! – SevenSidedDie Jun 12 at 16:54
    
In all honesty, I think the errata were unnecessary. An unarmed strike is an action, not a weapon. However hands, feet, knees and all the parts of your body that would be used in an unarmed strike are indeed weapons. A weapon by definition is an object you attack with, and there is no distinction between objects you hold vs objects that are part of you. – Escoce Jun 13 at 14:23

Due to errata published in 2015, unarmed strikes are no longer listed as melee weapons on the weapons table.

Weapons (p. 149). Unarmed strike doesn’t belong on the Weapons table.

So the reasoning in this answer is no longer accurate. Fortunately, the conclusion is still valid due to another change in the same set of errata:

Melee Attacks (p. 195). The rule on unarmed strikes should read as follows:
“Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage equal to 1 + your Strength modifier. You are proficient with your unarmed strikes.”

This explicitly classifies an unarmed strike as a melee weapon attack in spite of not really being weapons. (NOTE: The purpose of the distinction is to prevent, for example: attempting to use an ability to enchant a weapon on a body part.)

There is more general discussion on this subject in this question.

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