Attempting to grab someone by their hair and lift them up would probably rip their hair out.
I guess I should note here that if you were to grab someone by their hair and attempt to lift them that their hair would be ripped out of their scalp and they would fall to the ground and die. But that's beside the point.
You probably took a step too far..
It's a bit much that at a sleight of tongue belittling your character, you essentially stepped into the realm of an evil character by threatening someones life and nearly killing them, but I feel like more information might be required to answer your question.
The way you're playing your character makes it seem like you are either a Chaotic Neutral or a True Neutral Druid. Has your character ever taken this kind of action towards someone else belittling your intelligence?
The action that you took towards that player character was a Chaotic evil action, and even worse than that, you essentially took control of a players character out of that characters hands, and no one enjoys when this happens. Did your DM make you roll grapple checks to lift the character you attempted to grab? Did the DM consider an alignment change upon seeing you take such drastic action for such small discourse?
Would an apology fix the problem?
Another thing to consider, do you respect the person playing the character who said this to you? If you don't that was probably the sole reason you did what you did to that persons character, lack of respect at a gaming table can lead to belligerence, belittling, outright rage, and hurt feelings in general.
At most, you could apologize for your actions, state that you don't have any hatred towards the player and their character and hopefully in time mend the trust. Just state that you consider yourself a smart person and find it rude to offend someones intelligence just because they didn't want to take the same course of action as you.
I totally get where you're coming from.
Almost the same thing once happened to me while I was roleplaying. I was playing a Chaotic Neutral Psion and was brought into the presence of a king for many great deeds me and my party had assisted with across the land of his dominion, however, I would not kneel to the king because he was still only a man, and I would kneel to no man, and considered all my equal. Needless to say the DM thought I was being a jackass for not kneeling to his king, despite all the powerful level 20 characters the Dungeon master had crowded around him. It led to the DM stating that "My ego was too big for my head."
Later on during the same adventure I outright refused to enter a plane where magic and psionic powers did not function at all ( via Antimagic ) to recover a Ring of Boccob and despite it being a perfectly logical reason to not enter said plane ( Because it was obviously a trap, and a glass cannon that doesn't work doesn't live. ) essentially people in the group started insulting my intelligence for not trusting the DM and walking into an obvious trap, which eventually led to me leaving the group in the end of it.
Essentially, they belittled me, it made me feel like I was playing with a bunch of people that didn't respect or value my opinion, and It led to me eventually parting ways with the group.