Ok, I don't have time to answer this as I want to. My background is in psychology; and I fell into Roleplaying games when I turned 10 in 1976. So by the time I was in college understanding where the term Roleplaying game really came from; I understood the critical nature of immersion, how it is the most important ingredient for game success.
And to be clear, the definition of immersion is to "Immerse oneself into the identity and Role of the part one is playing. To respond, as much as possible, as the person one is playing, not as oneself."
And before getting into the smaller details, I will delver right into the fact that the very system/game one chooses has a huge amount to do with the amount of Immersion.
Metagaming is the opposite of immersion. You use both terms, but I need to make that absolute qualifier from the beginning. This also means rules that encourage metagaming decrease the immersion in a game and therefor, decrease the main ingredient of a roleplaying game. The mechanics are called "Dissociated Mechanics", a term coined by Justin Alexander. This is very worth reading, because it gets into many of the larger picture issues with players being able to use in-game logic to see the world around them, as opposed to the rules forcing dissociation with in-game logic.
Once the players assume that rules are going to determine the content of an encounter or treasure (based on EL, or whatever) instead of what the enviroment or history of the area dictate, versimilitude is lost.
Vreeg's Rules of Setting design are also heavily immersion related. My current campaign is 26 or so years old (started in 83). Building versimilitude is a huge part of this.
Vreeg's first Rule of Setting Design
Make sure the ruleset you are using
matches the setting and game you want
to play, because the setting and game
WILL eventually match the system.
Corrollary to Vreeg's First Rule
The amount of rules given to a
certain dimension of an RPG partially
dictate what kind of game the rules
will create. If 80% of the rulebook
is written about thieves and the
underworld, the game that is meant
for is thieving. If 80% of the
mechanics are based on combat, the
game will revolve around combat.
- Multiply this by 10 if the reward
system is based in the same area as
the preponderance of rules.
Character growth is
the greatest reinforcer. The
syntheses of pride in achievement
with improvement in the character
provides over 50% of the
reinforcement in playing the game.
Rules that involve these factors are
the most powerful in the game.
Vreeg’s Second Rule of Setting Design
Consistency is the
Handmaiden of Immersion and
Versimilitude. Keep good notes, and
spend a little time after every
creation to ‘connect the dots’. If
you create a foodtuff or drink, make
sure you notate if the bars or inns
the players frequent. Is it made
locally, or is it imported? If so,
where from? If locally made, is it
Vreeg's Third Rule of Setting Design
The World In Motion is critical
for Immersion, so create 'event
chains' that happen at all levels of
design. The players need to feel like
things will happen with or without
them; they need to feel like they can
affect the outcome, but event-chains
need velocity, not just speed.
Vreeg's Fourth Rule of Setting Design
Create motivated events and
NPCs, this will invariably create
motivated PCs. Things are not just
happening, they happen because they
matter to people (NPCs). There is no
overacting here, make sure that the
settings and event-chains are
motivated and that the PCs feel
Vreeg's Fifth Rule of Setting Design
The 'Illusion of Preparedness' is critical
for immersion; allowing the players to see
where things are improvised or changed
reminds them to think outside the setting,
removing them forcibly from immersion.
Whenever the players can see the hand of the GM,
even when the GM needs to change things in their favor;
it removes them from the immersed position.
(Cole, of the RPGsite, gets credit for the term).
Remember that part of immersion is the lack of feeling walls around and rails under the characters. This means that the players should not feel like there are things that their character cannot do solely because of the rules or the GM's mindset. The job of the GM is to enable roleplay, not to inhibit it.
This also means the GM must be as immersed as the players, or more.
I will try to add to this a little later. I am at work. And this is just my opinion about something that means a lot to me; your mileage may vary.
Another big-picture thing that may irk some folk who sell stuff is that published setting can hurt immersion. They don't destroy it, but when the players have a lot of knowledge about a setting that their character would not have; this increases the opportunity to use it, consiously or unconsiously.
Similarly, if your setting has it's own beastiary that the characters learn as they go along, or at least a lot of homebrew tweaks, the players get used to working with the in-house data and not trusting the published sources.
If you have done all of this larger-scope stuff, the smaller scope stuff becomes easier. As a GM with miles on the tires, I find that playing up the level of knowledge my NPCs might have and do not have helps keep the players in the same mindset. Players key heavily off the way the GM plays their NPCs. They won't do the funny voices or the mannerisms if the GM is not, and if the GM is very overly careful about what their NPCs know and don't know, especially verbally, the players emulate this.