From an Ars Magica and Aristotelian perspective, mind is divided into five elements. (Doing this bit from memory) Common Sense, Imagination, Memory, Cognition, and Estimation.
The 5 wits are: Common Sense (The ability to perceive the world), Imagination (The ability to composite images over time and store them) Memory (the ability to store concepts), Cognition (the ability to make reasoned judgements), and Estimation (the ability to make instinctive intuitive leaps and the connection to the emotions)
If you eliminate one of them or merge some of them, they could make a good correspondance to the physical elements, simply because a philosopher has already made those links.
There's also the virtual elements of Duncan: Love, Death, Time, Chance. He articulates them beautifully in his stories and they hold up quite well to a philosophical inspection. From a pragmatic point of view, his typing of a personality into a real and virtual element is a mapping to a Meyers-Briggs mapping. Looking at these as elements of mind, they can be framed as the "Dominions of Cognition" to make it more anthropormorphic. Only humans can conceve of these elements, which is why they originate from mind.
Here's a somewhat incomprehensible link to Taoist Alchemy.
Here's link to wikipedia elements. Thinking about it, mapping alchemical symbols to mind is a natural link, and you can draw out the properties of matter as metaphor for mind.
Tibetian philosophy suggests (ibid):
physical properties are assigned to the elements: earth is solidity; water is cohesion; fire is temperature; air is motion; and space is the spatial dimension that accommodates the other four active elements. In addition, the elements are correlated to different emotions, temperaments, directions, colors, tastes, body types, illnesses, thinking styles, and character. From the five elements arise the five senses and the five fields of sensual experience; the five negative emotions and the five wisdoms; and the five extensions of the body. They are the five primary pranas or vital energies. They are the constituents of every physical, sensual, mental, and spiritual phenomenon.[
It feels like it maps very well to what you want.
Personally, I'd go with the 5 aristotelian elements, because then I could do something of a sephiroth style hierarchy of elements and mind with "Creator" at the top and something of number 7 at the bottom. The kabbalistic tradition is so ... involved that you can cherry pick interesting stuff, tie it together with a "tree of life" and explain it with something like this. As a fun side note, it suggests an awesome divinatory methodology: set up a triangle of metal posts, drop ball bearings in, note what posts the bearing hits, and explain it from there. No similiarty to any kinds of games there... nope...
For extra fun, take a page from In a Wicked Age and perform one of those divinations in session. The results of the divination directly impact the actual plot.