Charms don't override/preempt each other unless that is called out in the rules
The quick answer is no - abilities or spells that impose the charmed condition don't cancel previous charmed conditions. They can be in effect at the same time.
The answers to this question covered some of these charming rules
One exception is in the case of harpies, once a target is charmed by a given harpy, other harpies cannot charm the creature.
Charms are not all equal
Things get complicated because there is not a single "charm effect." Various spells or abilities which impose the charmed condition (many of which are called "charm" or include the word in their name) actually impose very different sets of effects (See below).
For example, succubus can command a humanoid affected by her charm ability, while charm person only makes the target regard the caster as a "friendly acquaintence." In general, the succubus' commands would take priority over the suggestions of the spell-caster.
Charms in direct opposition
The exception to the above is if the command directly contradicts an effect of the other power, or contradicts the charmed condition, for example, if the succubus orders its thrall to attack a wizard who charmed the same humanoid. The charmed condition precludes this (see Appendix A: Conditions, PH, p.290).
In that case, a contest is in order (See Contests, DMG, p 238).
Crown of Madness vs. Vampire Charm
In the question's particular case, the caster of Crown of Madness could maintain control the charmed character as long as the caster meets the requirements of the spell. That is, choosing a creature for the charmed PC to attack before moving on the first round (which might necessitate the PC attacking an ally) and "using his action to control the target" on subsequent rounds PH p.230)
Also note the vampire's effect might outlast Crown of Madness. The spell would persist while the caster's concentration lasts, up to 1 minute. After that, the vampire's charm, which lasts 24 hours, would still be in effect.
If the caster ordered the charmed PC to attack the vampire, then that would be a Contest as described above.
Differing Charm Effects
Here are a few charm effects for reference. There are a lot of subtle differences, so you have to be aware of the specifics to determine how they would interact.
Crown of Madness
The charmed target must use its action before moving on each of its turns to make a melee attack against a creature other than itself that you mentally choose
Crown of Madness, PH p.229
the target isn't under the vampire's control
Vampire, MM p. 297
The charmed creature regards you as a friendly acquaintence.
PH, Charm Person, p. 221
While the target is charmed, you have a telepathic link with it...You can use this telepathic link to issue commands...
PH, Dominate Person
The charmed target obeys the fiend's verbal or telepathic commands.
Succubus, MM p. 285
While charmed by the harpy, a target is incapacitated and ignore the songs of other harpy.
Harpy, MM p.181