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Taking a random spell, I find Flames of Phlegethos. Its hit is 3d10 + Constitution modifier fire damage. Let's say the caster has a constitution score of 16, and he is level 2. This means his constitution modifier is +3 from his constitution score, and he has +1 from his half level.

Would his damage on this spell be 3d10 + 3 or would it be 3d10 + 4? The PHB doesn't seem to clarify this. Thanks!

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Welcome @James! Luckily this question has been asked and answered before, so I've closed your question and merged it over to this one. – mxyzplk Jul 22 '12 at 1:09
up vote 10 down vote accepted

Ability modifiers are applied to damage, but half-level isn't. So, in your example, the Flames of Phlegethos would inflict 3d10+3 damage.

Half-level is applied to attack rolls because they are ability checks. As a more general rule, feel confident to add half you level to every d20 roll except saving throws and to every static number which usually stands against a d20 roll (like defenses).

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No, it doesn't mean that.

In cases like the melee or ranged attacks, your relevant ability modifier (strength or dexterity) gets added to the damage, but there is no mention of your half-level. There doesn't really need to be either since as you're going along, you'll be finding more powerful weapons anyway (or weapons with +1's).

Just follow the formulas. Add your half-level if it says so, otherwise don't.

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