New answers tagged languages
I believe a person whose native language isn't your setting's variation of Common wouldn't translate any swear words into Common. (I'd certainly either swear as it's used in English or in non-translated Russian) For such a person I'd suggest something like the system I've used for my dwarf character (an expanded version): Swear object verb (halden) - it's ...
In the Hobbit, the Trolls, Eagles, Orcs/Goblins, Dragon, some Ravens, and (maybe) the Spiders all spoke Common (Westron). The Wargs, Thrushes, and Crows did not speak Common, but understood Common. In the scene with the Wargs, Tolkien states that Gandalf understood the Warg's hideous language, and that was why he knew (and the reader knows) what they are ...
Yes, RAW others can learn. Drow Sign Language is a bonus language for drow; others have to spend skill points to learn it. It has no alphabet or written form. (FRCS, p. 13) As always DMs can rule however they want and may require you to find a willing drow to teach you. (If I allowed it, I would require this.)
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