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What proficiency gives you spell attack modifiers?

So I'm just starting out in DND and I'm confused about what allows a character to have proficiency bonuses in spellcasting.

For example my level 1 Ranger has a +2 on shortbow attacks because he's proficient in simple weapons.

How could I get a +2 in spellcasting, by being proficient in what? Because the Wizard/Sorceror don't have a simple proficiency like "spells".