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These days it's not uncommon for systems to have a rule, explicitly stated, in the rulebooks as an "optional" rule, or commonly house-ruled in, where a sufficiently bad roll of the dice not only causes a character to fail whatever they were attempting but also causes some additional bad thing to happen to them (either randomly generated or decided by the GM/storyteller/arbitrator).

Names for such mechanics include "critical failure", "fumble", "botch", etc. Dice mechanics include rolling a natural 1 on a d20, rolling more 1s than "successes" (as defined by the system) on Nd10, rolling 3-of-a-kind on 3d6, etc.

What was the first game system to include an explicit rule of this nature (not a house rule or optional rule)?

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  • \$\begingroup\$ How is this question different from this question? \$\endgroup\$ – Hey I Can Chan May 24 '17 at 20:12
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    \$\begingroup\$ @HeyICanChan Ah, I wouldn't have guessed that one was a dupe from the title, but looking at the body of the question and your answer it's pretty much a dupe. \$\endgroup\$ – Oblivious Sage May 24 '17 at 20:17