Generally, no. But it depends on the spell
Fire bolt, sleep, and ray of enfeeblement cannot pass
The three spells all require you to target something. The things you can target are all bound by the rules on how to target things, and one of those rules is you cannot target someone behind total cover.
PHB pg 204, A Clear Path to the Target
To target something, you must have a clear path to it, so it can't be
behind total cover.
If you place an area of effect at a point that you can't see and an
obstruction, such as a wall, is between you and that point, the point
of origin comes into being on the near side of that obstruction
"Total cover" is defined in the PHB, so this is a game term.
PHB 196, Cover
A target with total cover can't be targeted directly by an attack or a
spell, although some spells can reach such a target by including it in
an area of effect. A target has total cover if it is completely
concealed by an obstacle.
Ask if a different character in the same position could have targeted the two humanoids with a bow. If they could not be targeted with a bow (or some other ranged attack) due to an obstruction, then they are behind total cover. In your example, this is the case (arrows normally do not phase through translucent glass).
The targeting rules apply to all spells: those with attack rolls, saving throws, those that target objects, creatures, or points of origins (to create areas of effect). Unless the spell description overrides these rules or comes into conflict with them, any spell follows the rules on targeting objects and requires a clear path to the target.
Silent Image can pass through the glass
Silent Image has a range of 60 ft and says the following:
The image appears at a spot within range and lasts for the duration.
This explicitly overrides the targeting rules, in that the image may explicitly appear at any spot within range. This includes spots within range behind total cover.
The spell also says the following:
You can use your action to cause the image to move to any spot within range.
So if you conjured the image somewhere not behind total cover with respect to you, you can still use your action to move the image somewhere behind total cover anyway, as long as it doesn't go beyond the range of the spell.