No, you cannot*.
That would completely circumvent the idea behind Vancian magic, and making the game much easier because you don't have to prepare anything in advance.
By game flavor, it's always been that spells must be prepared while the mind is fresh and not occupied by any thought.
That's the very first the character needs to do (well, maybe except physical needs), before breakfast too.
The rules states that: (thanks Polisurgist for the easy link)
You can change your list of prepared spells when you finish a long
rest. Preparing a new list of cleric spells requires time spent in
prayer and meditation: at least 1 minute per spell level for each
spell on your list.
You cannot wait, you cannot consult with any other character about it (you should do that the evening before).
This is true for any edition, and it's not restricted to clerics but it's true for wizards too.
*Of course, if everyone else agrees, you can always make it as a home rule. But it's just semantic, and in most D&D settings doesn't even make sense.