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Tiny Hut states that it:

remains stationary for the duration

If it is stationary relative to the surface it was cast on (as long as the surface is at least 20' in diameter), does that mean it's possible to cast it on a moving surface like a vehicle (boat/carriage/iceberg/etc?)

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    \$\begingroup\$ Possible duplicate of Do spell effects move if the object they are cast on moves? \$\endgroup\$ – JWT Jun 27 '17 at 13:28
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    \$\begingroup\$ Also possible duplicate of this question which has several potential duplicates itself. \$\endgroup\$ – JWT Jun 27 '17 at 13:37
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    \$\begingroup\$ @JWT I'm not sure that they are duplicates. None of those spells have the text requirement "stationary" which adds a level of complexity to question. I wouldn't be upset if this was marked as a duplicate because of the similarity, but it does seem somewhat difference. \$\endgroup\$ – NautArch Jun 27 '17 at 13:42
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    \$\begingroup\$ @JWT Both of those questions are tagged 3.5e. Though the editions may share similarities, 5e and 3.5e are different systems. It would be inappropriate to mark one as a dupe of the other, even if their answers end up being similar/the same. \$\endgroup\$ – Adam Jun 27 '17 at 14:44
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    \$\begingroup\$ Not a dupe (different systems and questions), but with the same answer. \$\endgroup\$ – GreySage Jun 27 '17 at 15:21
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Rules As Written

There's no specific definition of "stationary" in the game. Depending on your point of view, nothing is stationary, because planets whip through the cosmos at thousands of miles per hour.

That said, I've seen it ruled both ways, because there are no hard rules either way. One of the core design tenets of 5th Edition is "rulings over rules". Some things are deliberately left to the GM's discretion.

Advice

Personally, my ruling is based on mapping: if it's big enough or elaborate enough that a battle can take place on it, then it's big enough to count as a stationary object for spells that require them (like teleportation circles onboard ships).

So, to specifically address your list:

  • Boat - Nope, because boats aren't big enough to be a set piece on their own. Even large boats, like say a viking style longboat, don't count. They're potentially sizable, but they don't have multiple decks, compartments with doors, stairways and ladders, etc. I wouldn't bother mapping the details of that kind of boat, like I would a proper ship. To put it another way, during an encounter, boats will move around within the lakes or rivers the encounter takes place on, but a ship is where the encounter takes place.

  • Carriage - Nope, for the same reason. It's going to be part of an encounter, not a setting for the entire encounter.

  • Iceberg - Again, assuming it's large enough... yes. It's not specifically about dimensions, though - an iceberg just big enough for the spell's area wouldn't cut it. If it isn't big enough to be a setting for an encounter, if it isn't worth the time to draw out, it's not big enough to count as stationary.

To be clear, my ruling is not based on physical dimensions, beyond needing the minimum the spell calls for (10' radius for Tiny Hut, 10' diameter for Teleportation Circle, etc). It's about the importance of the area and the worthiness to be setting for an encounter.

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    \$\begingroup\$ This answer seems to dig into the semantic difference between "boat" and "ship" that might not be picked up by everyone. In case it's not clear, "boats" are small and should not be considered stationary, and "ships" are quite large and should be. \$\endgroup\$ – inthemanual Jun 27 '17 at 20:17
  • \$\begingroup\$ @THiebert It's actually not a semantic difference, unless you're a naval aviator, in which case your aircraft carrier is always "the boat" despite being a ship to everybody else. I think I was pretty clear in defining what it takes to be considered a ship - big enough to have multiple decks and multiple compartments. \$\endgroup\$ – T.J.L. Jun 27 '17 at 20:20
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    \$\begingroup\$ I think you were actually very clear about the difference, but I don't think the questioner intended for the difference. As such, that part of your answer reads like a minor frame challenge, without really presenting itself as such. It's not a big issue, I just think that section could be refined a little \$\endgroup\$ – inthemanual Jun 27 '17 at 20:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ Icebergs: In this world there are icebergs that are bigger than countries. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_B-15 was several days travel to walk from end to end. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Bonner Jun 28 '17 at 9:33
  • \$\begingroup\$ You may want to add this answer to this question. I'm not sure we can dupe the questions, but I think you're answer applies directly. \$\endgroup\$ – NautArch May 24 at 18:20
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Neither.

Leomund Tiny Hut is stationary relative to the caster position at the time of the casting.

Range: Self (10-foot radius hemisphere)

  • A 10-foot-radius immobile dome of force springs into exisence around ad above you and remains stationary for the duration.

The hemisphere has a floor. Apparently hemispheres have floors, domes don't. The hemisphere word in range prevails over the dome word in the description text. as this tweet by Mr. Crawford states.

Since it never mentions the ground, we can consider RAW:

  • It can be cast in mid-air ( w/ levitate/flying because 1 minute casting time).
  • It can be cast underwater ( w/ water breathing because you can't cast 1 minute-spells underwater)- the interior will be dry.
  • It can be cast on a vehicle if enough room exists for the hemisphere. If it will keep the vehicle from moving through the duration is up to the DM.
  • It will save you from an avalanche, if you have a minute left.

Finally: Assuming arrows were inside the area when the spell was cast, they can be shot outside. Free sniping.

Creatures and objects within the dome when youc ast this spell can move through it freely.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat. \$\endgroup\$ – SevenSidedDie Dec 8 '17 at 19:03
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    \$\begingroup\$ "Relative to the caster position", but in what frame of reference? i.e. the position in the universe relative to the sun? the position relative to the ground? to the ship? Related: rpg.stackexchange.com/q/69917/33691 \$\endgroup\$ – lucidbrot May 27 '18 at 12:21
  • \$\begingroup\$ @lucidbrot there are no astrophysics in 5e. It is relative to what the DM understands as "ground". If the adventure is on an island that is moving because it is a zaratan, it is relative to the island. Neither the characters nor the magic knows what "frame of reference" is. It is a medieval/renaissance simulation game. \$\endgroup\$ – Mindwin May 28 '18 at 12:23
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Mindwin Thanks! But even without astrophysics, some guidance on which interpretations work well and which do not would be useful. At least I would want to know how the consistency works if I were a player with that spell. And as a DM, I would not know how to answer, because any answer might have edge cases where it would not be smart to handle like that. Or would you say this is a question that should always be decided in the moment? \$\endgroup\$ – lucidbrot May 28 '18 at 15:29
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    \$\begingroup\$ @lucidbrot the Zaratan is a good proof-of-concept that the referential is subjective for the story's POV. The players think they are on an island, everything works as if they are on an island, but it is actually a (pretty big) monster's back. Making something (like immovable rods or leomund's hut) work differently than from an island will be a clue that it is not an island. Is it good for the story? If yes then go for it. otherwise, let it "break physics" and work as the players would expect for the setting. \$\endgroup\$ – Mindwin May 28 '18 at 17:35
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Treating it like Wall of Stone eliminates the million different Hover House scenarios. There's just too many ways for relatively low level, relatively clever players to create an almost impregnable floating fortress otherwise.

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    \$\begingroup\$ That's not a problem if clever players engage and do cool things in the game \$\endgroup\$ – user27327 Jun 28 '17 at 16:53

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