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Assume I have a Familiar, per the spell Find Familiar, and we're each adjacent to different enemies. If an enemy provokes an opportunity attack from me, and I have War Caster and a spell that targets only one creature, has a range of touch, and has a casting time of 1 action, can my Familiar attack the enemy adjacent to it, which did not provoke the opportunity attack?

Per Find Familiar, page 240 PHB 5e,

...when you cast a spell with a range of touch, your familiar can deliver the spell as if it had cast the spell. Your familiar must be within 100 feet of you, and it must use its reaction to deliver the spell when you cast it.

War Caster, page 170 PHB 5e,

... When a hostile creature's movement provokes an opportunity attack from you, you can use your reaction to cast a spell at the creature, rather than making an opportunity attack. The spell must have a casting time of 1 action and must target only that creature.

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No.

Per the provided descriptions, emphasis mine: "Your Familiar can deliver the spell", but War Caster says "The spell ... must target only that creature."

So War Caster's condition for casting spells in lieu of making an attack takes precedent over Find Familiar's potential to cast your spells.

However, this would work if your Familiar were attacking the creature that provoked the opportunity attack, although this would burn the reactions of both you and your Familiar for that turn, and would mechanically be a waste of a reaction.

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No, war caster only allows you to target that creature that provoked the opportunity attack.

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