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There is a similar question about this for 3.5e, but can a permanent teleportation circle be created on a large moving vehicle? For example, a sailing ship, or a wide portable floor?

The spell says:

You can create a permanent teleportation circle by casting this spell in the same location every day for one year. You need not use the circle to teleport when you cast the spell in this way.

To further illustrate the question, here are sub-questions:

  • What happens if I cast the spell on the vehicle for a year (and it is unmoving), and then the vehicle moves? Can it still be used as a destination point?

  • Can I create a permanent TC on the vehicle if it is never in the same place twice in the first place?

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Yes

The spell says:

As you cast the spell, you draw a 10-foot-diameter circle on the ground inscribed with sigils that link your location to a permanent teleportation circle of your choice whose sigil sequence you know and that is on the same plane of existence as you.

D&D 5e co-creator Jeremy Crawford clarified on Twitter that the destination of teleport (which may be a sigil from teleportation circle) may move. At the time of the post tweets were considered official rulings by WotC (which is no longer the case):

The teleport spell requires a destination. The nature of that place isn't specified. It can be the deck of a moving ship, for instance.

Likewise, the surface of the circle is important, not its point in space. So, the surface may also move while performing the teleportation circle spell every day for a year, and after it has become permanent. It has no restrictions that the permanent sigil doesn't move:

When you cast teleportation circle, you create the circle on the ground. The circle is bound to that surface, not to a point in space.

What happens if I cast the spell on the vehicle for a year (and it is unmoving), and then the vehicle moves? Can it still be used as a destination point?

Yes, the target is the sigil, not the point in space the spell was cast.

Can I create a permanent TC on the vehicle if it is never in the same place twice in the first place?

Yes. Jeremy's post shows that.

But, even more from a real world perspective, all motion is relative. On Earth, we tend to think of places we travel to as stationary -- but they are not. They are rotating around the Earth's axis and revolving around the sun. To the car/planes we travel in, they are standing still (relative to themselves) and Earth is moving beneath them...

Alright, I'm getting too much into Einstein on a D&D question. I read "same location" more like "same spot" than the same longitude and latitude.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Note that JCs Twitter post is about Teleportation, not Teleportation Circle. Two different spells with two different rules. \$\endgroup\$ – keithcurtis Jan 26 '18 at 22:16
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    \$\begingroup\$ They are different spells, but the rule is the same. As both talk about locations and the spells are related. The thing that is important is the Jeremy Crawford makes it clear that a location/destination can be moving. \$\endgroup\$ – J. A. Streich Jan 28 '18 at 14:59
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    \$\begingroup\$ The target of a Teleportation spell has no bearing on the casting requirements of Teleportation Circle. Not only are they different spells but also different parts of casting a spell. It would be like comparing Fireball and Delayed Blast Fireball and making a ruling on one based on comparing targeting of one to the damage of the other. \$\endgroup\$ – Protonflux Jan 29 '18 at 10:13
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    \$\begingroup\$ @NahynOklauq Not anymore actually. The most recent SAC changed that. \$\endgroup\$ – Rubiksmoose May 20 at 11:14
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    \$\begingroup\$ I'm not sure if it is of interest to you, but there are more than a few unofficial JC tweets on the subject of what is "ground": twitter.com/… they might strengthen your argument. \$\endgroup\$ – Rubiksmoose May 20 at 15:00
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No

The key line of the teleportation circle spell description is this:

As you cast the spell, you draw a 10-foot-diameter circle on the ground

You can't cast it on a vehicle.

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    \$\begingroup\$ "The ground" can also interchangeably mean a floor though. Does D&D 5e specify exactly that the term "ground" refers to the natural surface of the earth? If so, citing it would back up this answer as being correct over a natural language interpretation which would e.g. permit this to be drawn on a stone-brick dungeon floor. \$\endgroup\$ – doppelgreener Jul 10 '17 at 10:49
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    \$\begingroup\$ @doppelgreener, from a natural language POV, even if we accept stone floors of a building as "ground", there's still a bit of a leap to consider say, a wooden deck of a ship to be "ground". \$\endgroup\$ – ilkkachu Jul 10 '17 at 10:52
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    \$\begingroup\$ By this rationale, I can't cast this spell on the wooden flooring of my 5-story tall magical library? Or in my ceramic roof? Or over my Magical Rug? Please - we have more than enough examples in-fantasy and in-universe that this isn't the case. Also, trying to play rules-lawyering with 5E in this way isn't exactly appropriate - more than ever, D&D 5e is all about intent. \$\endgroup\$ – T. Sar Jul 10 '17 at 12:52
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    \$\begingroup\$ Some discussion on "ground" here. (From a more neutral perspective.) \$\endgroup\$ – Rawling Jul 10 '17 at 14:27
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    \$\begingroup\$ You know, i am inclined to agree with proton on this one. There is no "fluff" in the 5e text. If it says ground, it is ground. Next up: proving that the floor of a vehicle is considered ground. \$\endgroup\$ – Mindwin Jul 16 '17 at 2:51

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