I'm part of a group that is GM'ed by an incredibly stingy GM. We went through a campaign from level 1 to level 11 and we had two cloaks of resistance between the six of us, with not enough funds to buy more. We die, a lot, though I suspect part of it is lack of cleric. Having completed the campaign, we will start a new one, starting at level 10. However the kicker is that our starting gold for equipment is only 10,000 gold pieces per person.
This brings me to the problem at hand. Given previous patterns, I suspect this is going to be the largest gold pile this character will ever see, so I'd like to get all my good purchases done immediately, rather than hope I get enough gold to buy anything good later.
For this character creation, I am uninterested in stat allocation, skill selections, feat selections, or spell selections except where it pertains to selecting equipment. We have a 25 point buy if it is relevant. We are not using Automatic Bonus Progression. Crafting feats are a no go owing to predicted lack of funds for materials and time to craft. My last character had craft wondrous item but never had opportunity to use it.
Also, yes, we have talked with the GM, but he is not willing to change this pattern. None of us are truly bothered by it, but I'd still like to build an effective character given the constraints. What equipment can I get at level ten that in total costs under 10k gold under the assumption that it will make up the majority of all wealth the character will have?
I had opted not to include a class because I didn't know what class would be best. Since the current answers suggest spellcaster, my order of preference would be summoner, sorcerer, then druid. As for campaign length, I have no idea, but it will probably go to level 16 if I had to guess. As for specific enemies, the GM is a fan of big creatures like giants and dragons. We have never encountered a swarm or enemy that couldn't be hurt normally.