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The Ring of Spell Storing is a unique item in that it allows one spell to be cast two times. The first time is when the spell is cast into the ring:

Ring of Spell Storing, DMG 192

This ring stores spells cast into it, holding them until the attuned wearer uses them. [...] Any creature can cast a spell of 1st through 5th level into the ring by touching the ring as the spell is cast.

The second time, when the spell is cast from the ring:

Ring of Spell Storing, DMG 192

[...] While wearing this ring, you can cast any spell stored in it. [...]

Metamagic works on a per-cast basis:

Metamagic, PHB 101

You can use only one Metamagic option on a spell when you cast it, unless otherwise noted.

Furthermore, it's possible for two Sorcerers to share one RoSS. The first one can cast, for example, one Heightened and Empowered fireball into the ring, and then give it to the second. The second would then be able to cast the previously-Metamagicked fireball from the ring, but also apply Careful Spell on top of another Empowered Spell.

This seems to make it possible, albeit with some difficulty/resources/planning, to cast one spell with four applications of Metamagic. Is this possible, or am I missing a rule that forbids this?

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The spell uses the slot level, spell save DC, spell attack bonus, and spellcasting ability of the original caster, but is otherwise treated as if you cast the spell.

This says nothing about metamagic, so that aspect of the spell casting should be "treated as if you cast the spell." In effect, the ring doesn't store anything other than the spell's name, slot, DC, attack modifier, and any other spellcasting ability dependent calculations. Spellcasting ability is a defined term meaning the ability score (INT/WIS/CHA) that is used to do numerical calculations related to your magic. Metamagic is not one of any of those options and is not an aspect of your spellcasting ability, so it is not stored.

RAI, metamagic is designed so that only one metamagic option can be used on a spell (except for empowered), so trying to find a loophole around that restriction feels wrong. If a sorcerer came across an item that specifically mentioned metamagic and explicitly stated that it ignores the restriction of only one metamagic per cast, then it would be possible to apply multiple metamagic effects to the spell.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I've just realized this, but Empowered Spell and Careful Spell are metamagics that do depend on the original caster's spellcasting ability. \$\endgroup\$ – user27327 Jul 27 '17 at 13:33
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    \$\begingroup\$ They depend on the ability of the caster using the metamagic. Since metamagic isn't stored by the ring, the original caster's ability doesn't matter. When I referred to "any other spellcasting ability dependant calculations" I was referring to things like healing rolls, which are part of the spell description. \$\endgroup\$ – Johnathan Gross Jul 27 '17 at 15:08
  • \$\begingroup\$ You can however apply a metamagic to the spell you cast from the ring. "If a magic item's description says you cast a spell from it, you can use Metamagic on the spell." by Jeremy E Crawford. \$\endgroup\$ – Voromir Kadien Jan 8 '18 at 20:36
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    \$\begingroup\$ Right, but this is metamagic from the ring user, not the caster of the original spell. It's unambiguously not stored in the ring. \$\endgroup\$ – Johnathan Gross Jan 8 '18 at 20:46

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