You can cast a quickened spell into the ring, but it won't be quickened when it's cast from the ring.
First, if you're in a hurry for some reason, there's nothing stopping you from casting a quickened spell into the ring--a spell is a spell, at least for storing a spell.
However, the quickened property does not stick around. The relevant text reads (DMG 192):
The spell uses the slot level, spell save DC, spell attack bonus, and spellcasting ability of the original caster, but is otherwise treated as if you cast the spell.
Magic items only do what they say they do, and metamagic is not included in that list. A sorcerer could potentially apply metamagic to the spell as it is being cast from the ring, but your rogue doesn't have that ability, and thus cannot use metamagic on such spells.