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I am building Animated Objects in my game and the rules for ranged attacks for them are

Ranged Attack (Ex, 2 CP): Replace one slam attack with a ranged attack. It does the same amount of damage, and has a range of 20 feet. Replace all attacks for an additional +2 CP. Object abilities that specify slam attacks do not work on ranged attacks.

My question is if I pay for a crossbow would the construct use the crossbow's range or the animated object ranged attack range?

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It does the damage and has the range listed on the construct ability.

You cannot simply add weapons to your animated object, you build weapon-like object abilities. For instance, if you want a sword or an axe, you use the Slashing Attack:

Slashing Attack (Ex, 1 CP): Replace one slam attack with an attack that does slashing damage and has either a 19–20 threat range (for blade-like attacks) or a ×3 threat multiplier (for axe- or scythelike attacks). Replace all melee attacks for an additional +1 CP. Object abilities that specify slam attacks do not work on slashing attacks.

If you want a spear-like attack, you use the Piercing Attack:

Piercing Attack (Ex, 1 CP): Replace one melee attack with an attack that does the same amount of piercing damage and has a ×3 multiplier. Replace all melee attacks for an additional +1 CP. Object abilities that specify slam attacks do not work on piercing attacks.

This means that a bow or crossbow-like weapon would require the Ranged Attack ability:

Ranged Attack (Ex, 2 CP): Replace one slam attack with a ranged attack. It does the same amount of damage, and has a range of 20 feet. Replace all attacks for an additional +2 CP. Object abilities that specify slam attacks do not work on ranged attacks.

This is not truly a bow/crossbow, but a mechanism that works similarly and that your construct can operate.

Equipping a construct

Construct creatures are not proficiency with any weapon or armor types unless their specific entry mentions it. Like the Terra-cotta Archers being able to fire with longbows without penalties, or Cannon Golems being proficiency with their cannons.

Proficient with its natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with any weapon mentioned in its entry.

Proficient with no armor.

Which means that a construct that is equipped a longsword, assuming it has the proper means of wielding it, would make attacks with a -4 penalty.

Modifying a construct

However, it is not impossible to modify constructs after they are already been created. The Ultimate Magic (page 111) has some rules about building and modifying constructs, like adding Weapon Modifications:

Weapon Modification: This modification enhances a construct’s physical weaponry. This process includes adding actual weapons (such as blades or spiked chains) to the physical structure of the construct or enhancing existing weapons with additional magical properties. Structural changes alter the construct’s damage only. A construct is automatically considered proficient with any weapon added to its structure as a weapon modification.

This would also negate any penalty for using this weapon without proficiency.

The cost of this modification is based on the weapon being used, adding an extra cost equal to the weapon's price and taking one day per 1,000 gp total. A heavy crossbow modification would cost 50 gp for the weapon, and another 50 gp for the modification.

Weapon Modification: This modification enhances a construct’s physical weaponry. This process includes adding actual weapons (such as blades or spiked chains) to the physical structure of the construct or enhancing existing weapons with additional magical properties. Structural changes alter the construct’s damage only. A construct is automatically considered proficient with any weapon added to its structure as a weapon modification. The cost for adding a weapon is determined by the cost of the weapon or weapon enhancement added. The cost for magical enhancements to these weapons is the same as the cost for creating magic weapons as described on page 468 of the Core Rulebook. Performing a weapon modification also requires the Craft Magical Arms and Armor feat.

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For the purpose of my answer, I should state that the construct is actually wielding a weapon instead of it being a natural weapon like in Shadow Kras's answer.

You would use the crossbows range because that is the weapon that is attacking. If you took the ranged attack component for the construct then its that piece of the construct which is attacking, and not the crossbow. However to use the crossbow would require suitable limbs (both to fire and reload), and I do not remember if constructs gain any weapon proficiency (I dont believe so) so you are likely going to be taking the -4 for that.

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