You can try, but you are opening a can of worms.
You can wish for anything, this has never changed. What they changed throughout the editions are the consequences of wishing too big.
You would also need two wishes. One to emulate the casting of the clone, another to speed up the growth.
But if you wish for the growth of the clone, you are giving the ball on the DM's hand inside your 3-second area. And historically, the DM always go for the slam dunk.
So, what is so bad about this:
- 33% chance of never casting wish again.
- Opening to the DM the interpretation of your wish.
I will try to put several examples of how, depending on your wording of the wish, several undesirable things could happen:
"I wish this clone is fully mature".
- You could be transported forward in time to the moment the clone matures, 120 days from now.
"I wish this clone becomes mature this very moment".
"I wish this clone becomes mature now, and a perfect copy of me".
- The clone begins to grow, but absorbs your living flesh in a painful and excruciating way. You may roll for sanity loss. After less than a combat round worth of time, the clone is grown, and it is a perfect copy of yourself. Including the soul that just entered it.
And then, we arrive at one of the problems of open-worded wishes. They can always be used by the DM to make you miserable. Some would say should.
But the rule of cool is your ally this moment. More reddit on wishes.
Anecdote: Back in AD&D 2e (A.D. 199x), we had a houserule about wish: when a mage declared a wish spell, we would start a stopwatch, and let him roleplay his character wishing. From that moment until he finished, anything the player spoke at the table was coming out of the mouth of the character. If he picked up pen and paper, so did the character. Once he spoke "I wish", the spell was already being cast. Whatever he spoke then onwards was the DM's fooder for torture. Also, for every minute he used up we would pause the stopwatch, seize his writing implements, gag him (not physically), and play another combat round.