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Similar to How do I calculate proficiency advancement for multiclass characters? - But for dual-classing humans.

When a human character dual-classes, do they earn the starting proficiencies of the new class?

When a human dual-class character advances a level on their second class where a single-class character would earn a proficiency slot, do they gain that also?

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Instead, he starts over in a new class, at 1st level with 0 experience points, but he does retain his previous Hit Dice and hit points.

A plain reading would suggest that since you start over with none of your previous abilities you also earn everything (including proficiencies) as a new character. On the other hand, you don't have access to your former proficiencies until you reach the appropriate level. So if you're avoiding doubling up on proficiencies you might have to make some less-than-optimal proficiency choices.

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There is no Rules-As-Written answer. This is not discussed in either the Player's Handbook or the Dungeon Master's Guide, in either the 2nd Edition or 2nd Edition Revised books.

Weapon and Non-Weapon Proficiency rules were optional in 2nd Edition. My guess is that because of this, the writers didn't think through every possible scenario. But that's just speculation on my part.

So, we're left to muddle through with our own common sense. If you google, you will find discussions about this, with varying opinions. This is the method I used the only time it became relevant in my 2nd Edition GMing:

  • Weapon Proficiency: Gain the level 1 proficiency slots for the new class, and advance as the new class. This of course includes using the new class' level 1 THAC0.
  • Non Weapon Proficiency: No new NWP at level one. However, I allowed the character to
    1) use existing NWP without penalty
    2) regain one NWP slot he'd previously paid as a penalty to learn an out of class NWP which was now in-class for the new class.
    3) Spend the regained NWP immediately on a new class NWP
    4) Earn NWP per the progression for his new class.

My main goal was to get the bookkeeping over with so we could get back to our game. The player wasn't happy with my decision about NWP, but I couldn't really justify his character suddenly knowing three new things, especially in his specific case where the decision to multiclass (From priest to fighter) came pretty spur of the moment as a result of in-game actions, and not through any long-term planning. The player agreed that did make more sense, but still wanted the extra NWP. I was not persuaded by that argument.

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As GM I take this part of PHB text in main consideration:

In addition, the character earns no additional Hit Dice or hit points while advancing in his new class. The restrictions in the previous two paragraphs last until the character reaches a higher level in his new class than his maximum level in any of his previous classes. At that point, both restrictions are dropped: the character gains the abilities of his previous classes without jeopardizing his experience points for the adventure, and he earns additional Hit Dice (those of his new class) and hit points for gaining experience levels in his new class.

In the new class, proficiences are regarded as HD and HP, the char receives them only when the new class is higher and respecting the new class rate. Of course, there is no sense in being a specialist fighter, knowing the use of a dozen weapons and now as a level 1 mage, use a dagger with a -5 penalty, so I use the Baldur's Gate rule (the pc game) in addition: The character gains 1 point of non-weapon (nw proficiences does not exists in BG, I just apply the wp rule) and 1 point of weapon proficience when dual-classing. This is a balanced rule, because avoid the character amassing a huge quantity of proficiences (gaining 6 or 7 proficiences each time dual-classing is very unpleasant strange) and avoid the situation where a character is trying to learn a new 'profession' but cannot even use a weapon of the new class.

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