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Under the item description of the Staff of the Forgotten One in the ToA Hardcover, we see that a spirit inside the staff might try to possess the wielder:

The Forgotten One. The bodiless life force of a dead archmage empowers the staff and is imprisoned within it. The rune carved into the staff’s skull protects Acererak from this spirit’s vengeance. Each time a creature other than Acererak expends any of the staff’s charges, there is a 50 percent chance that the life force tries to possess the staff wielder. The wielder must succeed on a DC 20 Charisma saving throw or be possessed, becoming an NPC under the DM’s control. [...]

The Protection from Evil and Good spell can protect against some kinds of possession:

Until the spell ends, one willing creature you touch is protected against certain types of creatures: aberrations, celestials, elementals, fey, fiends, and undead. [...] The target also can’t be charmed, frightened, or possessed by them. [...]

If I were under the effect of Protection from Evil and Good, am I immune from getting possessed by the ghost of the staff?

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Yes, I would argue you are immune.

While this is not explicitly called out by the description of the staff, I think the text of the staff's effect and the spell lean heavily toward your strategy working.

As you have pointed out, the spirit in the staff is explicitly attempting to possess the user, and Protect from Evil and Good explicitly protects against possession. This seems quite reasonable even though the staff did not call out this spell specifically in its description.

As additional support, the staff's description says that Dispel Evil and Good can be used on the affected creature to exorcise the spirit and force it back into the staff. The effects of Dispel Evil and Good and Protection from Evil and Good have significant similarities, with Dispel being a higher level with some additional affects, and both share the line about ending possession. Therefore I would expect that if Dispel is meant to be able to use its effect to dispel the spirit, Protection should be able to use the similarly-worded effect to protect from it.

These two points together make me think that Protection from Evil and Good should be sufficient protection from the spirit of the staff attempting to possess you.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I suggest citing the Monster Manual p.7 entry referenced by Szega on another answer, which describes Undead as a category that includes bodiless spirits: “Undead include walking corpses, such as vampires and zombies, as well as bodiless spirits, such as ghosts and specters.” \$\endgroup\$ – doppelgreener Mar 7 at 11:04
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NO, unless your DM declares that the "bodiless life force of a dead archmage" is an undead creature.

Protection from Evil and Good (PHB p.270):

Until the spell ends, one willing creature you touch is protected against certain types of creatures: aberrations, celestials, elementals, fey, fiends, and undead. The protection grants several benefits. Creatures of those types have disadvantage on attack rolls against the target. The target also can’t be charmed, frightened, or possessed by them.

and

Staff of the The Forgotten One:

The bodiless life force of a dead archmage empowers the staff and is imprisoned within it.

The wielder must succeed on a DC 20 Charisma saving throw or be possessed

Protection from Evil and Good specifically protects someone from possession by aberrations, celestials, elementals, fey, fiends, and undead. Unless the bodiless life force of a dead archmage is declared an undead creature (or one of the other types listed) by the DM. As it is not defined as such in the description, by the letter of the rules, by default, it is not undead, nor any of the other types.

The Magic Jar spell (PHB p.257), which is the closest magical effect detailed in the rules to the power of the staff, states specifically that a Protection from Evil and Good spell protects against it's effects. RAW this strongly implies that Protection from Evil and Good does not protect from the staff's possession effect as it would have to state so specifically, as does the Magic Jar spell as it is not otherwise covered by a general rule. However it does provide weight in terms of justifying a DM decision that Protection from Evil and Good does, in fact, guard against the possession power despite all this, as would be my personal decision.

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    \$\begingroup\$ from the MM (p. 7, emphasis mine): "Undead include walking corpses, such as vampires and zombies, as well as bodiless spirits, such as ghosts and specters." \$\endgroup\$ – Szega Oct 2 '17 at 9:23
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Szega I would argue that this does not mean all bodiless spirits are undead. For instance is a wizard currently in a Magic Jar undead? Clearly not. However it is a very strong pointer towards the DM making the decision that it is, in this case, an undead spirit. \$\endgroup\$ – Protonflux Oct 2 '17 at 12:09
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Szega One could argue that this is nothing more than the object akin to Magic Jar and the original body died and the Archmage somehow was able to continue his existence inside the staff, willingly or not. Is the consciousness of the former bearer of a ring of mind shielding undead? \$\endgroup\$ – Slagmoth Oct 2 '17 at 13:02
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    \$\begingroup\$ This answer would better if you replaced No with Maybe. A "bodiless spirit" is at least maybe an undead creature. But also maybe not. \$\endgroup\$ – Yakk Oct 2 '17 at 15:05
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    \$\begingroup\$ The fact that the staff explicitly allows for Dispel Evil and Good to dismiss the spirit and that Protection from Evil and Good targets almost exactly the same list of creatures lays down some pretty strong evidence that this should work. If you are already under protection, then you cannot be possessed by the spirit. However, if the spirit possessed you first and then you were granted protection, you would still be possessed but would have advantage against any new saving throw against the possession. However, the staff's description above only mentions the initial saving throw. \$\endgroup\$ – Nick Brown Oct 2 '17 at 19:27
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No, you are not immune.

As you quoted, the target can’t be charmed, frightened, or possessed by creatures of the listed types. While the flavor text for the staff describes it as a "bodiless life force" and "spirit", the possession attempt is coming from the magic item, not a creature as defined by the game.

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    \$\begingroup\$ can you explain how this squares with the item's description which, to my reading, draws a distinction between the life force and the item? The spirit can be pushed back into the staff, the spirit will try to destroy the staff, &c. \$\endgroup\$ – nitsua60 Oct 2 '17 at 3:13
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    \$\begingroup\$ How do you account for creatures like ghosts, which are also arguably bodiless life forces and spirits? \$\endgroup\$ – Icyfire Oct 2 '17 at 3:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Icyfire they have "undead" on their stat block. But I doubt the forgotten one also doesn't have one [stat block] in that book (and I don't have it to check). \$\endgroup\$ – Mindwin Oct 2 '17 at 3:28
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Mindwin the forgotten one does not have a stat block. It only appears in the text about the staff. \$\endgroup\$ – Orvir Oct 3 '17 at 2:24

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