If Shape Water is used to freeze water into ice, in a particular shape (e.g. a small wall to use as cover, a battering ram to bash down a door, or an ice lockpick), does that ice object have the durability of regular non-magical ice? Or is it more resistant to shattering, chipping, and other such physical damage?
RAW it is normal ice
RAW the ice would have no special properties. Generally, if the spell doesn't say it does something, it doesn't do that thing. In this case, it says
You freeze the water, provided that there are no creatures in it. The water unfreezes in 1 hour.
It does not say that the result of the freezing imparts any kind of special properties besides the ice remaining frozen for an hour (which might not be normal for ice). It is normal water, but it is now simply frozen.
This fact does not change when you shape it either as that ability also does not say anything about imparting any quality but shape and moment to the water.
You cause the water to form into simple shapes and animate at your direction. This change lasts for 1 hour.
Note: that you are not creating magical ice here. You are using a magic effect to freeze normal mundane water into ice which is mundane in all of its qualities except the ones specifically called out in the spell.