YES you can always cast a spell that has no components (as long as you have the spell slot) as there are no requirements left to meet.
The quote about components does not say you have to have a component to have a spell. It says that the spell lists what components are required and if you are unable to provide all of them then you can't cast it.
If you can't provide one or more of a spell's components, you are unable to cast the spell.
If it was intended to be read as a component must always be provided to cast a spell then it would have been worded.
If you don't provide one or more components, you are unable to cast the spell.
With subtle spell Time Stop no longer has any components required (technically you could still have your character do them since not having to speak is not the same as being unable to speak). Since it doesn't require any components it becomes impossible to not be able to meet the requirements. (double negative for effect)
You can also consider the sorcery point spent as the verbal and/or somatic component of your spell.