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In Xanathar's Guide to Everything, the Path of the Zealot feature Divine Fury has been changed from an aura potentially affecting multiple creatures to an effect triggered when the first creature is hit by a successful attack on each of the Barbarian's turns during a rage.

Divine Fury (XGtE, page 11)

Starting when you choose this path at 3rd level, you can channel divine fury into your weapon strikes. While you're raging, the first creature you hit on each of your turns with a weapon attack takes extra damage equal to 1d6 + half your barbarian level. The extra damage is necrotic or radiant; you choose the type of damage when you gain this feature.

The Player's Handbook notes on page 196 that:

If the attack involves other damage dice, such as from the rogue's Sneak Attack feature, you roll those dice twice as well.

If the attack that triggers Divine Fury is a critical hit, is a Zealot Barbarian allowed to roll 2d6 instead of 1d6? I feel that this question is sufficiently distinct from How does extra damage work for critical hits? because (a) part of the uncertainty is the result of the ability previously being an aura, and (b) it seems like a secondary effect that isn't an intrinsic part of the attack (the first attack succeeding is merely the condition that triggers it), like a Paladin's Divine Smite or a Rogue's Sneak Attack.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I have edited the question to include my rationale for why this isn't a duplicate. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 15, 2018 at 12:15
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    \$\begingroup\$ I disagree with your rationale. When rules change, either by errata or because they were turned from Playtest rules to Official rules...the prior state of that rule is irrelevant. You do not attempt to interpret rules based on a previous state. (i.e. you don't look back at the D&D NEXT playtest rules to judge the state of the PHB rules, and you don't look at pre-errata rules to judge the state of post-errata tweaks.) \$\endgroup\$ Jan 15, 2018 at 12:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ @guildsbounty Actually there have been many situations where the intention of rules were inferred based on previous iterations... so you're demonstrably wrong on that point. But you're welcome to disagree, regardless. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 15, 2018 at 13:23

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This interaction is the same as Sneak Attack.

Sneak Attack:

Once per turn, you can deal an extra 1d6 damage to one creature you hit with an attack if you have advantage on the attack roll.

Divine Fury:

While you're raging, the first creature you hit on each of your turns with a weapon attack takes extra damage equal to 1d6 + half your barbarian level.

Note the key phrases "extra damage" and "creature you hit". The abilities work the same way, so there's no reason to think that Divine Fury's extra damage isn't doubled on a critical hit. There's no language that indicates triggering of a separate effect, like "when you hit with a weapon attack, you may ... ". It simply says that your first weapon hit on a turn does extra damage.

As far as the issue of Divine Fury having (as phrased in the question) been "changed from an aura", that simply isn't relevant. Unearthed Arcana material isn't final or official, and sets no precedent. It's misleading to think of differences between UA material and the contents of XGE as "changes". UA is an incomplete draft released for testing. XGE is the actual rules, not a revision or rules change.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Would give extra +1s for that last paragraph as well \$\endgroup\$ Jan 15, 2018 at 12:50
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    \$\begingroup\$ I think there’s still a meaningful semantic difference between the two. In one case you “deal damage” and in another they “take damage”. The zealot’s fury damage could come straight from their deity, rather than the weapon (a tag on smite to the “marked” person), whereas sneak attack damage is explicitly cause by the weapon used by the rogue. Zealot fury happens because you hit, but isn’t necessarily part of the hit. \$\endgroup\$
    – jerclarke
    Mar 23, 2020 at 15:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ Notably, this distinction is important because it effects whether subsequent hits to the creature cause more fury damage. see: Does the Zealot Barbarian's Divine Fury apply multiple times if you focus the same target? \$\endgroup\$
    – jerclarke
    Mar 23, 2020 at 15:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ FWIW I’m not saying you’re wrong about RAI or RAW but just that there’s a difference. This answer is really reasonable. It’s the other question that confounds me, I’m leaning towards this distinction being weak, and that RAW might actually be that multiple fury damage per turn is the RAW interpretation (and my player’s barb dual wields so it’s important). \$\endgroup\$
    – jerclarke
    Mar 23, 2020 at 16:05

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