Since alcohol in large amounts acts like a poison - D&D 5e doesn't differentiate between poison and toxin, to my knowledge - you can use spells such as "Lesser Restoration" to get rid of its effects.
Lesser Restoration: You touch a creature and can end either one disease or one condition afflicting it. The condition can be blinded, deafened, paralyzed, or poisoned.
Also the following spell:
Protection from Poison: You touch a creature. If it is poisoned, you neutralize the poison. If more than one poison afflicts the target, you neutralize one poison that you know is present, or you neutralize one at random. For the duration, the target has advantage on saving throws against being poisoned, and it has resistance to poison damage.
Both spells are level 2.
If your DM also gives you levels of exhaustion for drinking (which is a bit over the top, in my opinion) you can either sleep it off or use the "Greater Restoration" spell to remove one level of exhaustion.
As @Icyfire mentioned, there are other ways of getting rid of poisoning, which includes alcohol poisoning.
Those are (no guarantee for completeness):
- spell Heroes' Feast (credit goes to @Icyfire):
[...] The creature is cured of all diseases and poison, [...]
- A paladin's class feature "Lay on hands" (credit goes to @Icyfire):
[...] Alternatively, you can expend 5 hit points from your pool of healing to cure the target of one disease or neutralize one poison affecting it. [...]
- A wild magic surge (credit goes to @KumosAgosta):
53-54: You are immune to being intoxicated by alcohol for the next 5d6 days.
- Transmuter's stone (School of Transmutation wizard, level 14):
You remove all curses, diseases, and poisons affecting a creature that you touch with the transmuter’s stone.
- Raise Dead: You could technically kill yourself and get revived, due to the following passage in the description of Raise Dead. I personally wouldn't recommend this method, but that might just be me. (Note that this also goes for other resurrection spells like Resurrection or True Resurrection)
This spell also neutralizes any poisons and cures nonmagical diseases that affected the creature at the time it died.
A quick search for "poison" in the Player's Handbook yielded the following additional results, which only provide benefits (unless you want to get drunk) to yourself, not to others:
- Druid/Circle of the Land, level 10 feature Nature's Ward: Immunity to poison
- Monk level 10 feature Purity of Body: Immunity to poison
Non-PHB features etc.
- XGtE: Description of Brewer's Supplies:
Medicine. This tool proficiency grants additional insight when you treat anyone suffering from alcohol poisoning or when you can use alcohol to dull pain.
- VGtM: Yuan-Ti Pureblood player race: Poison immunity
- VGtM: Ki-Rin lair effect:
Curses, diseases, and poisons affecting good-aligned
creatures are suppressed when those creatures are
within 3 miles of the lair.
There might be other creatures in the MM that have similar effects to the Ki-Rin's lair effect, but I don't feel like skipping through any more poison damage attacks and monsters' poison resistances, Volo's Guide had enough of those.