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If I were to cast True Polymorph (which permits all creatures, not just beasts, as the regular Polymorph does) on myself to turn myself into, say, an Ancient Brass Dragon (provided that I'm level 20, which is required due that dragon's CR) - could I then use the Change Shape "racial" feature of the dragon?

Change Shape. The dragon magically polymorphs into a humanoid or beast that has a challenge rating no higher than its own, or back into its true form...

True Polymorph:

Choose one creature [...] that you can see within range. You transform the creature into a different creature, [...]. The transformation lasts for the duration, or until the target drops to 0 hit points or dies. If you concentrate on this spell for the full duration, the transformation becomes permanent.
Shapechangers aren’t affected by this spell. [...].

Creature into Creature
[...] The target’s game statistics, including mental ability scores, are replaced by the statistics of the new form. It retains its alignment and personality. [...]

I can't find anything in the spell that would prevent one from doing so. The only thing that might come into play is the phrase "Shapechangers aren't affected by this spell". You as the caster are not a shapechanger, however, so even though you transform into a shapechanger, you aren't when you cast the spell.

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Yes you can true polymorph into an ancient brass dragon

As you say, the spell and rules are clear. An ancient brass dragon is a creature, it is not a shapechanger (and may not matter if they were), and it is of the appropriate CR for your level.

Thus, there is no reason why you would not be able to use true polymorph in this way.

Ancient Brass Dragons are not shapechangers

Ancient Brass Dragons are not considered shapechangers. A creature is a shapechanger if they have the monster subtype (Shapechanger). Ancient Brass Dragon's creature type is dragon.

The fact that it is able to change shape (a special ability) is irrelevant to being able to transform into that shape. The dragon does not have the shapechanger subtype, thus it won't be potentially conflicted with the shapechanger subtype restriction.

You can use all the abilities of your True Polymorph form

The target’s game statistics, including mental ability scores, are replaced by the statistics of the new form.

Jeremy Crawford says:

When a game effect, like Wild Shape, says you use a creature's statistics, you use its stat block (see "Statistics," MM, 6).

According to that same section "Special Traits, Actions, and Reactions" are part of a monster's stat block.

Ability to change shape back to your old form is unclear.

It is worth noting that you may not be able to use change shape to change back into your old form: Can you use a Dragon's Change Shape Ability to Turn Back Into Yourself?

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True Polymorph really doesn't have many restrictions apart from the CR limit, so yes it is potentially the most overpowered spell in the game. Since the dragon's polymorph keeps its health, you can become the dragon, then become a level 17/20 level version of yourself again with its polymorph, except you have almost 300 health and legendary resistances. The book has no rules against this, and thus becoming a mighty Gold/Brass dragon can prove a way to really piss a DM off, because they'll probably spend 40 minutes trying to disprove it.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Are you referring to the dragon's change shape ability? I refer to your "the dragon's polymorph" in your second sentence. If so I'd recommend editing that to be more clear because the polymorph spell is very limited in what forms it can take on: beasts. Change shape is much more flexible. It would be worth reviewing this Q&A and perhaps consider other revisions to your ansewr - your call. \$\endgroup\$ – KorvinStarmast Mar 10 at 14:29

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