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By RAW, what reaction is available to all characters in general, regardless of class and race?

Is there anything else beside Readied Action and Opportunity Attack? To clarify, it's fine if it comes from a feat or other source outside class and race, as long as it does not require a specific class or race.

I'm looking for a way for lower leveled characters with disadvantage in attacks to contribute to the battlefield.

For example reactions that can impose disadvantage on enemy attack or save or check, or instead grants advantage to their allies. Outside of RAW, I was thinking about taunting the enemy when their ally attack to impose advantage or bonus attack roll.

Unearthed Arcana is fine.

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RAW, Quite a Few, mostly from Feats

There are several Feats that give reactions. For example:

  • Defensive Duelist (Prerequisite: Dexterity 13 or higher) When you are wielding a finesse weapon with which you are proficient and another creature hits you with a melee attack, you can use your reaction to add your proficiency bonus to your AC for that attack, potentially causing the attack to miss you. (PHB, p. 165)
  • Mage Slayer: When a creature within 5 feet of you casts a spell, you can use your reaction to make a melee weapon attack against that creature. (PHB, p. 168)
  • Sentinel: When a creature within 5 feet of you makes an attack against a target other than you (and that target doesn’t have this feat), you can use your reaction to make a melee weapon attack against the attacking creature. (PHB, p. 170)
  • Shield Master: If you are subjected to an effect that allows you to make a Dexterity saving throw to take only half damage, you can use your reaction to take no damage if you succeed on the saving throw, interposing your shield between yourself and the source of the effect. (Ibid)

You could also use the Magic Initiate feat to gain the Shield spell, which takes a reaction to cast.

There are also conditional actions you can take depending on what your character is doing, for example, if your character is mounted during combat:

If your mount is knocked prone, you can use your reaction to dismount it as it falls and land on your feet. Otherwise, you are dismounted and fall prone in a space within 5 feet it.(PHB, p. 198)

XGtE also gives (optional) rules on identifying spells that declare that identifying a spell as it is being cast requires a reaction. Although this requires an Intelligence Arcana Check (DC 15+level of spell), it is theoretically attemptable by any character (though if you are the same class as the caster, you have advantage on the check). (XGtE, p. 85)

In my experience though, the vast majority of reactions will be spent on what you already mentioned: Readied Actions, and Opportunity Attacks.

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Reactions in the PHB:

Reactions available to everyone (besides opportunity attacks and readied actions):

  • If your mount is knocked prone, you can use a reaction to dismount and land on your feet.

The feats:

  • Defensive Duelist
  • Mage Slayer
  • Magic Initiate feat allow spells that are cast as a reaction. Detailed below.
  • Polearm Master
  • Sentinel
  • Shield Master
  • War Caster
  • The Martial Adept feat allows you to learn two maneuvers; amongst those, Parry and Riposte make use of your reaction.

By taking the Magic Initiate feat, the spells:

  • Feather Fall
  • Hellish Rebuke
  • Shield

Reactions in Xanathar's Guide to Everything:

By taking the Magic Initiate feat, the spell:

  • Absorb Elements

Actions:

  • Identify a spell (optional rule)
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New/Modified Sources of Reactions from the PHB


Defensive Dualist Feat

Allows you to add Prof to AC as a reaction

Mage Slayer Feat

Modifies the existing OA. Now triggers from a spell cast within 5 ft.

Magic Initiate Feat

Gives you the ability to cast some spells.

This modifies a readied action to include casting a spell.

Martial Adept Feat

Some manuvers involve taking a reaction.

Polarm Master Feat

Modifies OA, allows it to be triggered when people enter your threat.

Sentinel Feat

Allows OA vs someone who moves 5ft within your threat range

Shield Master Feat

Take half/no damamge from Dex Saves for full/half damage.

War Caster Feat

Can substitute a spell cast for OA

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