Spell damage is always magical unless it says otherwise
Unless a spell specifies otherwise, any damage dealt by the spell is magical. This is highlighted in spells like Swift Quiver in the PHB pp. 279-280:
You transmute your quiver so it produces an endless
supply of nonmagical ammunition, which seems to leap
into your hand when you reach for it.
Contrast this with a spell like Thorn Whip in the PHB pg. 282, which does piercing damage. It's a cantrip, it's affecting a target, and by default being magical it counts as magical piercing damage.
Conjured objects aren't exempt from this just because the spell isn't doing damage. Again, the default rule applies though. Unless the object specifically says otherwise, anything summoned by magic is magical. An example of this is Flame Blade in the PHB pg. 242 which summons a flaming saber into your hand that deals fire damage. Whereas if you conjure a pack of woodland creatures, their game statistics determine what kind of damage they deal and whether or not it's magical.
Contrast that with the spell Fabricate in the PHB pg. 239 which states:
Creatures or magic items can’t be created or
transmuted by this spell. You also can’t use it to
create items that ordinarily require a high degree of
craftsmanship, such as jewelry, weapons, glass, or
armor, unless you have proficiency with the type of
artisan’s tools used to craft such objects.
So even if you used a spell like Fabricate to create a weapon because you're also a blacksmith, the weapon can not be magical because the limitation is written into the spell.
As to your question with respect to Minor Conjuration, I've listed the pertinent text here, emphasis mine:
Conjure up an inanimate object. Object can be no more than 3 feet on a side and weigh no more then 10 pounds. Its form must be that of a non-magical object that you have seen. The object is visibly magical, radiating dim light out to 5 feet.
It says it right in the description. The object is visibly magical, so yes, you can use it to overcome damage resistance.
Oh, and Crawford ruled on this when asked:
Do spells that deal physical damage count as magical?
TL; DR version - Spells are magical by default unless it is specifically stated otherwise. Conjuration specifically calls out when it's not magical, and summoned creatures don't apply because their game statistics tell you whether or not they're magical.