Many parts of the text on attunement specify that they only apply to items that require attunement. Surprisingly, actually attuning isn't one of those parts. The DMG ( p. 138) states:
Attuning to an item requires a creature to spend a short rest focused
on only that item while being in physical contact with it (this can't
be the same short rest used to learn the item's properties)..., at the
end of the short rest, the creature gains an intuitive understanding
of how to activate any magical properties of the item, including any
necessary command words.
None of this demands that the item in question requires attunement.
Also note that you must spend a different short rest (ie, another hour) to identify what the properties of this magic item are (attunement does not reveal that). And yet another hour to drop attunement to this item, since you can only be attuned to up to three magic items at a time. Still, you will be able to learn the number of charges an item has without the Identify spell.
NOTE: Spending a short rest to Identify the item (DMG p. 136) will not reveal how many charges the item has left, by rules as written (RAW). Your DM may permit it to do so, but RAW states that the Identify spell reveals charges remaining (both stated on DMG p. 141, and PHB p. 252, in the text of the spell), while the description of mundanely identifying the item (with a short rest) (DMG p. 136) does not.