There's a balance problem here, but not the one you think.
To answer the actual in-the-title question first...
Removing crits from spells results in a downturn in a spellcaster's damage potential at low level, which largely fades out as they level up. There are only 33 spells in all of 5E (including all supplements) that use an Attack Roll instead of a saving throw. This is, however, weighted very heavily towards lower level spells. A little more than half of all combat cantrips (and all the highest damage ones save Toll the Dead) use Attack Rolls.
Naturally, the consequence of taking this away means that the spellcaster no longer has the opportunity for the 'spike' of damage (and the glee) that comes with rolling a natural 20. But, as a spell caster gets higher level, they often become less and less dependent on their cantrips (unless you're a Warlock spamming EB), and more reliant on the 'big spells' that they have an ever increasing library of.
But...the clarification you have in the question about how a Saving throw can Crit Fail and explanation of what that means changes everything about this answer.
Your Fireball can Crit.
Let me say that again...
Fireball. One of the best damaging spells in the entire game. Can Crit.
Not because you rolled it, no. But because every single individual caught in the blast has to make a discrete save...and the more of them who are rolling, the higher the odds of one of them dropping a Nat 1, and getting hit for critical damage (and bonus effects). Sure, it may not be doubling up on damage die entirely...but it is (at the very least) getting a heap of bonus effects that in can apply, which can very often be just as--if not more devastating in the long-run.
Here are a few other catastrophe-grade spells that can critical now:
Disintegrate, Meteor Swarm, Earthquake, Firestorm, Cone of Cold.
In short...your DM has taken away crits from the minority set of your spells, and given them to the majority set (there are a lot more save-dependent spells than attack-dependent spells). Most of which, unlike Attack-roll based effects, hit multiple targets.
Your DM has actually made spellcasters terrifying. One of the balancing features of Save spells is that they can't crit. They do massive damage across large areas, but there isn't that 5% chance of them doubling their dice.
At this point, you have two options...
- Tell your DM about this egregious balance issue, and let him reset things back to 5E the way it was designed (the Devs did this for a reason, after all. Playtesting is a thing).
- Pick up all the Saving-throw based AoE spells you can, and cackle maniacally as you devastate entire battlefields singlehandedly.
Honestly? The Rogue and the Paladin are the ones getting it the worst here. But that's a separate question