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Let's say we have a multiclass Rogue (Assassin) + Sorcerer named Adam. Adam manages to attack a Surprised Target, and chooses to cast Fireball instead of making a Ranged Attack.

Assassinate is worded as the Following:

Assassinate: Starting at 3rd level, you are at your deadliest when you get the drop on your enemies. You have advantage on attack rolls against any creature that hasn’t taken a turn in the combat yet. In addition, any hit you score against a creature that is surprised is a critical hit.

A Spell that forces a Saving Throw is obviously not an Attack, so you wouldn't get "Advantage" on it (since you as the Assassin aren't rolling). However, Assassinate doesn't explicitly state that it relies on an attack; all it says is that hits on a Surprised Target are Critical Hits.

When someone is forced to make a Saving Throw against a spell like Fireball, is that considered a "Hit" for the purpose of being doubled?

Using common definitions, it would be, since a Hit is, according to Merriam Webster:

Hit: to strike or be struck by (someone or something) forcefully

In this case, the enemy would be "struck" by the Fireball.

Or is there RAW that states that only Attacks can "Hit", or redefines the term "Hit" so that common definitions do not apply?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Wouldn't a crit be meaningless on fireball? "When you score a critical hit, you get to roll extra dice for the attack’s damage against the target." Fireball is not an attack so there are no extra dice to roll. \$\endgroup\$ – David Coffron Apr 16 '18 at 21:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ The first question @Rubiksmoose linked asks essentially the same question, and the answer answers this question as well. \$\endgroup\$ – V2Blast Apr 16 '18 at 21:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ @V2Blast Ahh, I see. That first answer was pretty good. I wish that that question had showed-up in the "Related" section when I was writing the question. \$\endgroup\$ – SeraphsWrath Apr 16 '18 at 21:27
  • \$\begingroup\$ Give this question mentions RAW and the related answer is answered in a Tweet where the 'officialness' is often questioned (Given how often JC changes his mind) I am not sure it actually is a duplicate. \$\endgroup\$ – SeriousBri Apr 17 '18 at 8:53