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For example, the AOE (area of effect) spell "Cloudkill":

When a creature enters the spell’s area for the first time on a turn or starts its turn there, that creature must make a Constitution saving throw. The creature takes 5d8 poison damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one. Creatures are affected even if they hold their breath or don’t need to breathe.

Say you cast this in a 15x15 room. It should cover the entire room, and as such, the question remains - are you affected by the cloud, as well as the enemies?

I'd hazard a guess as yes, as it doesn't specify "other than you," but I just want to make sure so I don't cast it and TPK by accident.

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Yes, a caster is affected by their own AOE unless the spell or ability states otherwise

Cloudkill says:

When a creature enters the spell’s area for the first time on a turn or starts its turn there, that creature must make a Constitution saving throw.

The caster is "a creature" certainly, so, barring anything in the spell that says otherwise, they are affected.

Certain spells/abilities allow you to choose your targets. The best example is probably the Evocation School Wizard class ability sculpt spells which allows the wizard to choose creatures (including themself) to not be affected when they are in the range of evocation spells that they use.

Don't walk into your own AOEs folks.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Thunderwave, for example, states that you may choose if you're included or not. \$\endgroup\$ – JackChance Apr 24 '18 at 20:44
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Rubiksmoose it doesn't explicitly state it, but PHB p. 204 states "A cube’s point of origin is not included in the cube’s area of effect, unless you decide otherwise." \$\endgroup\$ – PixelMaster Apr 24 '18 at 21:04
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    \$\begingroup\$ phb, p.204 Cube: You select a cube's point of origin, which lies anywhere on a face of the cubic effect. The cube's size is expressed as the length of each side.* A cube's point of origin is not included in the cube's area of effect, unless you decide otherwise.* \$\endgroup\$ – JackChance Apr 24 '18 at 21:06

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