There is no direct equivalent feat in 5e to pathfinder's 'Brilliant Planner'.
So, if you want a feat that's an exact fit then homebrew is your only option.
There are, however, two very good options available that would be a good thematic (if inexact) fit, especially if they're combined.
- Have you considered the feat Keen Mind?
Of the currently available official feats this is the closest to what your looking for.
You have a mind that can track time, direction, and detail with
uncanny precision. You gain the following benefits.
- Increase your Intelligence score by 1, to a maximum of 20.
- You always know which way is north.
- You always know the number of hours left before the next sunrise or sunset.
- You can accurately recall anything you have seen or heard within the past month.
The last bullet point is close, to the kind of skill you're looking for. It means that your PC will retain any possible information they could have acquired about a situation beforehand, from whatever they've done / read in the last month. And, even if you the player has forgotten things, the DM should remind you, as your PC would not have forgotten them.
Even if you don't want to use the Keen Mind feat as is, it might be a good basis from which to build a homebrew feat.
Feats are not your only option (and may not be your best one).
You've said that you plan to play a wizard:
- Have you considered taking the School of Divination sub-class?
The most prominent ability of the school allows your character to 'forsee' certain dangers that will occur in the future and avert them. It seems like a really good fit thematically for the 'Brilliant Planner' feel that you want to achieve. Rather that treating it as a prophetic ability, you could re-skin it with your DM, without needing to change any of the mechanics, to be a consequence of your character's forward planning.
Starting at 2nd level when you choose this school, glimpses of the future begin to press in on your awareness. When you finish a long rest, roll two d20s and record the numbers rolled. You can replace any attack roll, saving throw, or ability check made by you or a creature that you can see with one of these foretelling rolls. You must choose to do so before the roll, and you can replace a roll in this way only once per turn
Each foretelling roll can be used only once. When you finish a long rest, you lose any unused foretelling rolls.
You'll gain a third dice to use this way at 10th level.
- Lastly, combining Portent with the Lucky feat would make it even more powerful
And, as suggested in the comments by Jason_c_o, it would provide a lot of scope to demonstrate the benefits of your characters 'forward planning'.
If you want to go this way, acquiring two feats by level 6 is viable, with variant Human as your race.
If you choose to combine both taking the School of Divination sub-class and the Keen Mind feat (and possible even Lucky as well), it could get you very close to the effect you want to achieve, without the need for any homebrew.