Is there a name for the "subparty" controlled by a single player that includes:
- Player character
- Familiar, animal companion
- Summoned monsters/nature's allies
- Cohort/Followers (from the Leadership feat)
If so…what is it?
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Technically, the player controls one character only, the player character (PC). All other characters are controlled by other players—the other PCs by their respective players, and all others by the DM. Familiars, companions, mounts, summons, cohorts, and followers are all NPCs, controlled by the DM; their relationship to a PC just gives them a certain loyalty and obedience for the given PC. That player only “controls” them by having their PC give out orders, which those creatures should generally follow—but it is up to the DM to control how they follow those orders (as appropriate to their Intelligence, needs and desires, and relationship to the PC).
It is extremely common to houserule responsibility for controlling these creatures to the player, but it is a houserule. And since these characters are not officially all grouped by a player’s control over them, there is no official term for that group.
In my experience, the most common colloquial general term for such creatures is minion, so the group could be referred to as “the PC and his-or-her minions.”
There is no special term for the "Sub-Party" as you called it. Primarily because there's no need for such a term. Also, as others have mentioned, these friendly creatures are technically NPCs controlled by the DM with player control generally being houseruled or, in terms of combat, more akin to the PC delivering orders to the creatures and the NPC obeying. If you wish to give the "Sub-Party" a name, feel free, but I question the need.