Use the rules for alchemy
What you are describing already exists in the system, in the form of alchemical weapons (like a Burst Jar), alchemical substances (like a Powder Ball), and alchemist's bombs. Maybe it isn't as strong as you want it to be, but the system is an abstraction, not a simulation of reality.
The game doesn't go into the chemical details on how alchemist fires work, or what exact components are used to create an alchemist's bomb, but the result is an explosive of some sorts, a combustible throwable weapon created using alchemy.
But you need Craft(Alchemy) or a few levels on the alchemist class to pull that off, simply using your (meta) knowledge on how these things work in real life shouldn't be enough to allow your character to create those things.
On this similar question, we see some good advice on how to avoid meta-gaming like this by thinking how our characters would think, being inquisitive about the world, checking up books, asking questions to people who might know the answer (How gunpowder works?). This will allow your GM to slowly introduce that kind of content to your character, and come up with creative ways to allow you to do what you want to do without house-ruling too much.
I have a friend who often will use modern do-it-yourself guides and try to come up with inventive technology in medieval times. Sometimes things that weren't invented until very recently, like a water-fueled motor, I kid you not.