This question is inspired by this answer which provides a named technique by which a GM can work around a specific situation.
My question is: what are the various established techniques that a GM can use to help run the narrative within a session?
An ideal answer would include examples on how each technique can be used and the situations where it is best employed.
Gating: Used to improve participation by providing a scenario where one potentially reluctant character is required to help solve a problem.
IE: "The inscription is written in Dwarvish, which the talker can't read. Pass a note to the party's dwarf."
I am not talking about things like tricks for tracking initiative, or miniatures vs 'theatre of the mind', just established techniques such as foreshadowing or gating (As in the example).
I am interested in techniques that will help D&D 5e; but I think this is probably best being system agnostic.