No, it does not.
To resolve a spell, you just read the spell's description and follow those instructions. Unless it explicitly asks for an attack roll, you don't make one. See the chapter on Spells (page 205 in the PHB, or here in the basic rules):
Some spells require the caster to make an attack roll to determine whether the spell effect hits the intended target.
Fire bolt, for example, reads:
Make a ranged spell attack against the target.
But fireball says:
Each creature in a 20-foot-radius sphere centered on that point must make a Dexterity saving throw.
It mentions nothing about an attack roll, so you don't need to make one.
There also exist some spells that require both, such as ice knife (XGtE, p. 157; EEPC, p. 19):
Make a ranged spell attack against the target. On a hit, the target takes 1d10 piercing damage. Hit or miss, the shard then explodes. The target and each creature within 5 feet of it must succeed on a Dexterity saving throw...
But such spells will explicitly say so; fireball does not.
Note that magic missile says nothing about either of these things, so you don't have to do either. It just hits automatically.