I’m interested in designing part of my D&D campaign to have a jungle environment which the players will potentially need to navigate at some point.
Does D&D 5e have published rules for navigating and travelling through jungles?
The Dungeon Master's Guide has all kinds of rules that can be adapted for jungles. Hot temperatures (p. 110), quicksand (p. 110), diseases (p. 256-257), all these things function perfectly in a jungle.
However, the main focus of the published D&D adventures tends to be the Sword Coast, which is scarce on jungles. If you want to go more in-depth on jungle survival, look no further than the Tomb of Annihilation campaign book, which has more detailed rules on the kind of food you might find in the jungle, how much water you need to drink, and why it's a terrible idea to drink from jungle streams.